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Sunday, November 15, 2015

Imam Bukhari

Imam Bukhari (ramatullah alaih), the collector and most authentic presenter of Hadith. He compiled the Hadith in a written format (book) which we now know as Sahih Bukhari. Imam Bukhari was born on 13th Shawwal in the year 194 A.H. in Bukhara town in Khurasan (west Turkistan). His full name is Muhammad bin Ismail bin Al Mughirah Al Bukhari.

His father died when he was a young child and his mother raised him. At the age of 10, he started acquiring the knowledge of Hadith. He travelled to Makkah when he was 16 years old along with his mother and elder brother. He stayed back and bid farewell to his mother and brother. He spent 2 years there and then went to Madina. After spending another 4 years there, he went to Basra, Kufa and Baghdad, Egypt and Syria. He came to Baghdad on many occasions. He met Imam Ahmed bin Hanbal.

He used to keep away from princes and rulers for the fear that he might incline to say things to please them. It is said that he collected over 300,000 Ahadith and he himself memorized 200,000. It is said that Imam Bukhari had a dream in which he saw himself standing with a fan and driving away the flies from the Prophet (saw). He laboured day and night and although he memorized a large number he only chose approximately 7,275 with repitition and about 2,230 without repetition of which there is no doubt about their authenticity.

Before he recorded each hadith, he would make ablition and offer a 2 rakat salah and supplicate to Allah. Many religious scholars tried to find fault in the great collection (Sahih Bukhari) but in vain. It was generally regarded as the most authentic book after the book of Allah.

Imam Bukhari died on firs Shawwal in the year 256 A.H. and was buried in khartank, a village near Samarkand. May Allah have mercy and peace on him.

--- Written by Dr. Muhammad Muhsin,
Islamic University, Al Madina Munawwara, Saudi Arabia,
1970 (1390 A.H)

Friday, November 13, 2015

Miracle Child- Quran Appearing On Body

A 9-month old baby boy has left doctors baffled in Russia after phrases from the holy Koran began appearing on his skin. These sayings from the Islamic holy book are said to appear on nine-month-old Ali Yakubov's back, arms, legs and stomach, before fading away and being replaced with new sayings.

Ali's parents were left stunned when the word Allah appeared on Ali Yakubov's chin soon after his birth. Since then scores of writings in the Arabic script have appeared almost all over his body. Medics have denied that the marks are from someone writing on the child's skin.

The kid's mother, Madina Yakubov, said that she and her husband were not religious until the words started appearing on his skin.

Ever since the phenomenon started, the boy has become a focus of Muslim homage in his home province of Dagestan, close to war-ravaged Chechnya in the south of Russia.

Local MP Akhmedpasha Amiralaev said: "This boy is a pure sign of God. Allah sent him to Dagestan in order to stop revolts and tension in our republic."

The baby boy's mother said: "Normally those signs appear twice a week - on Mondays and on the nights between Thursdays and Fridays.

"Ali always feels bad when it is happening. He cries and his temperature goes up."

"It's impossible to hold him when it's happening, his body is actively moving, so we put him into his cradle. It's so hard to watch him suffering."

Friday, November 06, 2015

Conquest of Istanbul (Constantinople)

Constantinople was the Capital of Byzentine Empire. Byzentines were the super power of that time and were leaders of the christian world. Every now and then christian armies would attack muslim lands. Muslims had no security in the lands bordering with Constantinople. First time in history, in the reign of the great Muslim Sultan, Sultan Mehmet 2, Muslims captured Constantinople and reverse invasion started. Muslims started attacking Byzentine lands after the Conquest of Istanbul.
                    Before Sultan Mehmet, his father Bayazed Yeldrim (Yeldrim means lighting) had besieged Constantinople but he could not conquer is because of an unexpected attack by Ghangiz khan. He had to lift the siege and face Ghangiz Khan. Yeldrim was defeated in the war and was made captive. He died in the prison. His son Mehmet 2 took the throne when he was very young (21yrs i think). In this war, Sultan Mehmet Fateh (Fateh was the title given to him because he conquered Constantinople).

Following paras I am lifting from Turkish gov website:


Preparation for the conquest of Istanbul started only, one year ahead Iuge canons that were necessary for the siege were moulded. In 1452, Rumeli Castle was constructed to control the Bosphorus. A mighty fleet of 16 galleys was formed. The number of soldiers were doubled. The supply routes to Byzantine were taken under control. An agreement was made with Genoese to keep Galata impartial during the war. In Aprıl 1453, the first Ottoman frontier forces were seen in front of Istanbul. The siege was starting.  The important points of the conquest are chronologically listed below.

6 April 1453: Sultan Mehmed pitched his imperial tent by• the door of Romanus in
Topkapi. The same day the cìty was besieged from the
Golden Horn to the Marmara Sea from the land.
6-7 April 1453: First cannons fired. Some of thè fortresses in Edirnekapi were destroyed.

9 April 1453: Baltaoğlu Süleyman Bey la unched the first attack to enter the Golden Horn gulf.
9-10 April 1453: Some of the fortresses on Bus were taken. Baltaoğlu Süleyman Bey seized the Marmara Islands.

11 April 1453: The big fortresses were bombarded by cannon fires. Holes and cracks were opened here and there. Serious destruction inflicted by ceaseless bombardment

12 April 1453 The Ottoman fleet attacked the ships protecting the Golden Horn. The victory of the Christian ships decreased the morale of the Ottoman army. At the order of Sultan Mehmed, the Byzantine ships were pounded by mortar fire, and one galley was sunk.

18 April 1453, Night: The Sultan gave his first crucial order. The attack lasted four hours but it was scattered.

20 April 1453: A naval skirmish took place close to Yenikapi between the Ottoman fleet and four Byzantine war-ships with three supply ships full of food and weapons sent by the Papacy The Sultan came to the shore himself and ordered Baltaoğlu Süleyman Pasha to sink those ships by any means possible. The Ottoman fleet could not stop enemy's ships which were bigger. With this failure the Ottoman army lost its morale and showed the signs of defeat. Ottoman soldiers staned defecting from the army. Soon, the Byzantizne Emperor wanted to take advantage of thís situation and offered peace. The offer, supported by famous Vizier Çandarlı Halil Pasha, was rejected by Sultan Mehmed. The siege and bombardment of the fortresses with cannons continued.

During this chaos and widespread feeling of defeat, a letter from the Sultan's spiritual teacher Akshemseddin promised good news about the conquest. Encouraged by this spiritual support, Fatih Sultan Mehmed, escalated the attaek, and decided to add an element of surprise: the Ottoman fleet anchored in Dolmabahce would be moved to Gold en Horn gulf land.
22 April 1453: In early. hours of the morning, Byzantine Christians were dumbfounded and horrified when they saw Ottoman galleys moving down on the hills of the bay Seventy ships carried by cows and balanced by hundreds of soldiers via ropes were slid over slipways. By afternoon the ships were inside the well protected bay.

The surprise appearance of the Ottoman fleet in the bay created panic among Byzantine residents of Costantinople. The fonresses on che shore of Golden Horn became a vulnerable spot and some of the Byzantine forces were moved there. This weakened the defence of the land fortresses.

28 April 1453: The attempt to burn the Ottoman ships in the bay was prevented by heavy, cannon fire. A bridge was constructed between Ayvansaray and Sütluce to attack the fortresses located on the shore of the bay An offer of unconditional surrender was delivered to the Emperor through the Genoese. If he surrendered he could have gone wherever he wanted and the life and property of his people would .have been spared. The Emperor rejected thzs offer.

7 May 1453: A three hour long attack was launched on the stream of Bayrampasa with a 30,000 strong force; but it was failed.

12 May 1453: A thunderous attack made towards the point between Tekfursaray and Edirnekapı was defeated by the Byzantine defence.

16 May 1453: When the underground tunnel dug in the direction of Eğrikapı intersected the Byzantinian underground tunnel, an underground skirmish erupted. The same day, an attempt to cut the sturdy chain blocking the entrance of the bay failed. The following day the attack was  repeated, but again ended with failure.
18 May 1453: Ottoman forces launched another attack from the direction of Topkapı, by using a wooden mobile tower. the Byzantine burned the tower at night and emptied the trenches that were filled by Ottomans. Over the following days, bombarding of the land fortresses was continued.

25 May 1453: Fatih Sultan Mehmed, sent Isfendiyar Beyoğlu ismail Bey as an ambassador offering him to surrender for the last time. According to this offer, the Emperor and his followers could take their wealth and go anywhere they wished. The people who decided to stay could keep their belongings and estates. This offer too was rejected.

26 May 1453: According to rumors European countries and especially Hungarians were planning to mobilise their troops to help the Byzantines unless the siege was ended. Upon hearing these rumors Sultan Mehmed gathered his war council. In the meeting Çandarlı Halil Pasha and his party defended their previous position, that is, of putting an end to the siege. Sultan Mehmed with his tutor Zağanos Pasha, his teachers Akşemseddin, Molla Gızrani and Molla Hızsrev opposed the idea of quitting. They decided to continue the war and Zağanos Pasha was commissioned for preparations.

27 May 1453: The general attack was announced to the Ottoman army 28 May 1453: The army, spent the day by resting and preparing for the next day's attack. There was a complete silence among soldiers. Sultan Mehmed inspected the army and encouraged them for the great attack. On the other side, a religious ceremony was held in Haghia Sophia Church. The Emperor urged people to participate in the defence. This would be the Iast Byzantine ceremony.

29 May 1453: Platoons positioned for the assault. Sultan Mehmed gave the order to attack at midnight. Inside Constantinople, while the soldiers positioned for war, people filled rhe churches. The Ottoman army launched its final assault accompanied by commemoration of God and beats of drums. The first assault was performed by infantry and it was followed by Anatolian soldiers. When 300 Anatolian soldiers were martyred, the Janissaries staned their attack. With the presence of Sultan Mehmed, the Ottoman army was motivated and cbest to chest fights started. Meanwhile the young soldier called Ulubatlı Hasan who first erected the Ottoman flag on Byzantine land fortresses was martyred. Upon the entrance of the Janissaries from Belgradkapı and the surrender of the last defenders in Edimekapı front, the Byzantine defence collapsed.

Abandoned by his soldiers, the Emperor was killed during street   skirmishes. Turkish forces entered from every direction and crushed the Byzantine defence completely Towards noon Sultan Mehmed entered the city He went directly to Haghia Sophia Church and convened it to mosque.

The conquest of Istanbul has had such a historical impact on the Turkish and Muslim world to the degree that some historians demarcate the end of the Middle Ages with the city's conquest. With the siege of Istanbul, the Ottomans proceeded to establish hegemony over numerous independent Turkish states (Beylik) within Anatolia (Asia Minor). The result of imperial conquest was to unify the Turkish populations in Anatolia. In tum, other non-Turkish, Muslim communities and principalities were brought together under the aegis of Ottoman leadership so that the Ottoman Beylik would eventually expand into an Empire.

After the conquest, Ottoman Muslims were to take dynamic roles in shaping international politics. Up until that point, European

Chrìstendom had, for three centuries, striven to evict Muslims from Asia Minor, with Istanbul functioning as a border station for the Crusaders. After the conquest, however, the sovereignty of Asia Minor Muslims was assured, and they were no longer threatened by the Crusaders. Indeed Muslims would eventually begin European campaigns, so that the conquest of Istanbul became a historic turning point vis a vis proving superiority over Europe. A second critical component in Istanbul's signiEicance to world events and history is its relationship to the Renaissance. After its conquest, many Byzantine artists and philosophers emigrated to European centers-mostly Rome taking with them valuable manuscripts regarding advanced ıntellectual developments. These intelligentsia were instrumental in the movement to revive and revise classical Greek culture. The clash and reunification of the two divergent schools sparked the ideological revolution known as the European Renaissance, and Byzantine intellectuals from Istanbul were pivotal agents in catalysıng the movement.

During this war, Sultan Mehmet did and extraordinary military strategy. He ordered pulling of the warships on the land and then get those ships in the river behind the Fort of Constantinople. Entire operation of pulling the ships on land was carried out in night and in the day the ships were firing on the Fort. This was an unprecedented military strategy in those days.

The Hums

The word Hums denotes extremism, including in the matters of religion. (Lisanul- Arab: Hamasa).It denotes being strict and harsh in religion. Quraish highly glorified he Haram and committed themselves not to leave the Haram on the night of Arafah and used to say: "We are the people of Allah and we shall not go out of the sanctuaryof makkah."

Ibn Ishaq said:

I do not know whether it was before or after the Year of the Elephant that Quraish invented the idea of Hums and put it into practice. They said : "We are the sons of Ibrahim (as), the people of the holy sanctuary, the guardians of the House and the citizens of makkah. No one else among Arabs has rights like ours or a position like ours. The Arabs recognize none as they recognize us, so do not attach the same importance to lands outside the Sanctuary., for if you do, the Arabs will lose respect for your sacred position and they will say, "They have given the same importance to the land outside the sanctuary as to the sanctuary." So they  gave up stopping at Arafah and the departure therefrom, even though they recognized that these were parts of rituals of the Hajj and the religion of the religion of Ibrahim. They believed that the other Arabs should stop there and depart from there, but they said: "We are the people of the sanctuary and it is not appropriate that we should leave the sanctuary and venerate any other place as we, the Hums, honour it, for the Hums are the people of the sanctuary." They then proceeded to apply the same rules on other Arabs who descended from them, whether they were born within or outside the sanctuary.

Tribes who believed in the Hums along with the Quraish-
Kinanah, Khuza'ah joined Quraish in that. Ibn Hisham said: Abu Ubaisah An-Nahwi told me that Banu 'Aamir ibn Sa'sa'ah ibn Mu'awiyah ibn Bakr ibn Hawazin also joined them in that.

Later many more innovations were added to the Hums. The Holy Prophet (saw) abolished all the innovations and established the true religion of Araham according to the shariyah of Allah.

Sunday, November 01, 2015

House of the Holy Prophet (video)

He (saw) is master of two worlds. Yet his home was so simple. Neither too small not too lavish, simple is the right term to describe it. Or you can call it Moderate. This home will definitely bring tears to the eyes of those who love the prophet (saw) and his family.

Sunday, August 15, 2010

Age of Hazrath Ayesha (ra)

The most controversial issue circling around the Holy prophet (saw) is the age of Ayesha (ra) at the time of her marriage with the holy prophet (saw). Islam haters has blown this out of proportion and used it as much as thay can to tornish the image of his excellency, the Holy Prophet of Islam. But here are the facts:

Determination of the true age of Aisha (ra):

Determination of the true age of AishaIt appears that Maulana Muhammad Ali was the first Islamic scholar directly to challenge the notion that Aisha was aged six and nine, respectively, at the time of her nikah and consummation of marriage. This he did in, at least, the following writings: his English booklet Prophet of Islam, his larger English book Muhammad, the Prophet, and in the footnotes in his voluminous Urdu translation and commentary of Sahih Bukhari entitled Fadl-ul-Bari, these three writings being published in the 1920s and 1930s. In the booklet Prophet of Islam, which was later incorporated in 1948 as the first chapter of his book Living Thoughts of the Prophet Muhammad, he writes in a lengthy footnote as follows: “A great misconception prevails as to the age at which Aisha was taken in marriage by the Prophet. Ibn Sa‘d has stated in the Tabaqat that when Abu Bakr [father of Aisha] was approached on behalf of the Holy Prophet, he replied that the girl had already been betrothed to Jubair, and that he would have to settle the matter first with him. This shows that Aisha must have been approaching majority at the time. Again, the Isaba, speaking of the Prophet’s daughter Fatima, says that she was born five years before the Call and was about five years older than Aisha. This shows that Aisha must have been about ten years at the time of her betrothal to the Prophet, and not six years as she is generally supposed to be. This is further borne out by the fact that Aisha herself is reported to have stated that when the chapter [of the Holy Quran] entitled The Moon, the fifty-fourth chapter, was revealed, she was a girl playing about and remembered certain verses then revealed. Now the fifty-fourth chapter was undoubtedly revealed before the sixth year of the Call. All these considerations point to but one conclusion, viz., that Aisha could not have been less than ten years of age at the time of her nikah, which was virtually only a betrothal. And there is one report in the Tabaqat that Aisha was nine years of age at the time of nikah. Again it is a fact admitted on all hands that the nikah of Aisha took place in the tenth year of the Call in the month of Shawwal, while there is also preponderance of evidence as to the consummation of her marriage taking place in the second year of Hijra in the same month, which shows that full five years had elapsed between the nikah and the consummation. Hence there is not the least doubt that Aisha was at least nine or ten years of age at the time of betrothal, and fourteen or fifteen years at the time of marriage. (Living Thoughts of the Prophet Muhammad, 1992 U.S.A. edition, p. 30, note 40.)

To facilitate understanding dates of these events, please note that it was in the tenth year of the Call, i.e. the tenth year after the Holy Prophet Muhammad received his calling from God to his mission of prophethood, that his wife Khadija passed away, and the approach was made to Abu Bakr for the hand of his daughter Aisha. The hijra or emigration of the Holy Prophet to Madina took place three years later, and Aisha came to the household of the Holy Prophet in the second year after hijra. So if Aisha was born in the year of the Call, she would be ten years old at the time of the nikah and fifteen years old at the time of the consummation of the marriage.

Research subsequent to the time of Maulana Muhammad Ali has shown that she was older than this. An excellent short work presenting such evidence is the Urdu pamphlet Rukhsati kai waqt Sayyida Aisha Siddiqa ki umar (‘The age of Lady Aisha at the time of the start of her married life’) by Abu Tahir Irfani. 1
Points 1 to 3 below have been brought to light in this pamphlet.

1. The famous classical historian of Islam, Ibn Jarir Tabari, wrote in his ‘History’:

“In the time before Islam, Abu Bakr married two women. The first was Fatila daughter of Abdul Uzza, from whom Abdullah and Asma were born. Then he married Umm Ruman, from whom Abdur Rahman and Aisha were born. These four were born before Islam.” (Tarikh Tabari, vol. 4, p. 50.)

Being born before Islam means being born before the Call.

2. The compiler of the famous Hadith collection Mishkat al-Masabih, Imam Wali-ud-Din Muhammad ibn Abdullah Al-Khatib, who died 700 years ago, has also written brief biographical notes on the narrators of Hadith reports. He writes under Asma, the older daughter of Abu Bakr:

“She was the sister of Aisha Siddiqa, wife of the Holy Prophet, and was ten years older than her. … In 73 A.H. … Asma died at the age of one hundred years.” Mishkat al-Masabih, Edition with Urdu translation published in Lahore, 1986, vol. 3, p. 300–301. (Go here to see an image of the full entry in Urdu.)

This would make Asma 28 years of age in 1 A.H., the year of the Hijra, thus making Aisha 18 years old in 1 A.H. So Aisha would be 19 years old at the time of the consummation of her marriage, and 14 or 15 years old at the time of her nikah. It would place her year of birth at four or five years before the Call.

3. The same statement is made by the famous classical commentator of the Holy Quran, Ibn Kathir, in his book Al-bidayya wal-nihaya:

“Asma died in 73 A.H. at the age of one hundred years. She was ten years older than her sister Aisha.”Vol. 8, p. 346.

Apart from these three evidences, which are presented in the Urdu pamphlet referred to above, we also note that the birth of Aisha being a little before the Call is consistent with the opening words of a statement by her which is recorded four times in Bukhari. Those words are as follows:

“Ever since I can remember (or understand things) my parents were following the religion of Islam.”Those four places in Sahih Bukhari are the following: Kitab-us-Salat, ch. ‘A mosque which is in the way but does not inconvenience people’; Kitab-ul-Kafalat, ch. ‘Abu Bakr under the protection of a non-Muslim in the time of the Holy Prophet and his pact with him’; Kitab Manaqib-ul-Ansar, ch. ‘Emigration of the Holy Prophet and his Companions to Madina’; and Kitab-ul-Adab, ch. ‘Should a person visit everyday, or morning and evening’.

This is tantamount to saying that she was born sometime before her parents accepted Islam but she can only remember them practising Islam. No doubt she and her parents knew well whether she was born before or after they accepted Islam, as their acceptance of Islam was such a landmark event in their life which took place just after the Holy Prophet received his mission from God. If she had been born after they accepted Islam it would make no sense for her to say that she always remembered them as following Islam. Only if she was born before they accepted Islam, would it make sense for her to say that she can only remember them being Muslims, as she was too young to remember things before their conversion. This is consistent with her being born before the Call, and being perhaps four or five years old at the time of the Call, which was also almost the time when her parents accepted Islam.

Two further evidences cited by Maulana Muhammad Ali

In the footnotes of his Urdu translation and commentary of Sahih Bukhari, entitled Fadl-ul-Bari, Maulana Muhammad Ali had pointed out reports of two events which show that Aisha could not have been born later than the year of the Call. These are as follows.

1. The above mentioned statement by Aisha in Bukhari, about her earliest memory of her parents being that they were followers of Islam, begins with the following words in its version in Bukhari’s Kitab-ul-Kafalat. We quote this from the English translation of Bukhari by M. Muhsin Khan:

“Since I reached the age when I could remember things, I have seen my parents worshipping according to the right faith of Islam. Not a single day passed but Allah’s Apostle visited us both in the morning and in the evening. When the Muslims were persecuted, Abu Bakr set out for Ethiopia as an emigrant.”Muhsin Khan’s English translation of Bukhari, Volume 3, Book 37, Number 494. See this link.

Commenting on this report, Maulana Muhammad Ali writes:

“This report sheds some light on the question of the age of Aisha. … The mention of the persecution of Muslims along with the emigration to Ethiopia clearly shows that this refers to the fifth or the sixth year of the Call. … At that time Aisha was of an age to discern things, and so her birth could not have been later than the first year of the Call.”Fadl-ul-Bari, vol. 1, p. 501, footnote 1.

Again, this would make her more than fourteen at the time of the consummation of her marriage.

2. There is a report in Sahih Bukhari as follows:

“On the day (of the battle) of Uhud when (some) people retreated and left the Prophet, I saw Aisha daughter of Abu Bakr and Umm Sulaim, with their robes tucked up so that the bangles around their ankles were visible hurrying with their water skins (in another narration it is said, ‘carrying the water skins on their backs’). Then they would pour the water in the mouths of the people, and return to fill the water skins again and came back again to pour water in the mouths of the people.”Sahih Bukhari, Kitab-ul-Jihad wal-Siyar, Chapter: ‘Women in war and their fighting alongside men’. See this link in Muhsin Khan’s translation and go down to report listed as Volume 4, Book 52, Number 131.

Maulana Muhammad Ali writes in a footnote under this report:

“It should also be noted that Aisha joined the Holy Prophet’s household only one year before the battle of Uhud. According to the common view she would be only ten years of age at this time, which is certainly not a suitable age for the work she did on this occasion. This also shows that she was not so young at this time.” Fadl-ul-Bari, vol. 1, p. 651.

If, as shown in the previous section above, Aisha was nineteen at the time of the consummation of her marriage, then she would be twenty years old at the time of the battle of Uhud. It may be added that on the earlier occasion of the battle of Badr when some Muslim youths tried, out of eagerness, to go along with the Muslim army to the field of battle, the Holy Prophet Muhammad sent them back on account of their young age (allowing only one such youngster, Umair ibn Abi Waqqas, to accompany his older brother the famous Companion Sa‘d ibn Abi Waqqas). It seems, therefore, highly unlikely that if Aisha was ten years old the Holy Prophet would have allowed her to accompany the army to the field of battle.

We conclude from all the evidence cited above that Aisha (may Allah be pleased with her) was nineteen years old when she joined the Holy Prophet as his wife in the year 2 A.H., the nikah or betrothal having taken place five years previously.

Original and full article: click here

Thursday, August 12, 2010

Excellent Ad about Khalid Bin Waleed

Excellent Ad about Khalid Bin Waleed.This Ad shows the incident where Khalid Bin Waleed stops fighting and searches for his helmet in the heat of war, between the swords of enemy. What was so special about his helmet? Watch the Ad. This shows the commitment and love the Sahaba for the holy Prophet(SAW).